Motivation contains ‘internal processes which stimulate us on to satisfy some need’. Motivation can be intrinsic (motivation from within the person rather than from any other person, e.g., a sense of achievement at having completed a difficult piece of work) or extrinsic (motivation/from some other person, e.g., praise from a teacher for good work). The intrinsic motivation is generally more motivating than extrinsic motivation. Also, it is therefore encouraging in learning process.
A teacher’s job would certainly be easier if all pupils were inspired intrinsically. However, pupils are asked to do many activities at school, which are new to them and difficult. In order to become intrinsically motivated, pupils need. Teachers can plan such extrinsic motivators into their lessons. Developing motivation is part of good formative assessment.
The activities and effort that people start and continue determines by their motivation. Pupils may be motivated by a number of elements.
Attainment (e.g., completing a piece of work which has taken a lot of effort)
Pleasure (e.g., getting a good mark or praise from a teacher for a piece of work)
Preventing or finishing less pleasant activities (e.g., avoiding getting a detention)
Satisfaction (e.g., feeling that you are making progress)
Success (e.g., doing well in a test).
It is often very difficult for a teacher to choose what is motivating a particular pupil at a special time. It can say that effort can best be judged by comparing different pieces of the same pupil’s work, as the standard of work is likely to reflect the amount of effort put in. These efforts can be encouraged by giving two marks for the work, one for content and standard of the work and one for effort and
presentation in motivation
Thus, even if the content of lesson and its standard are poor, it may be possible to praise the effort. This praise can motivate the student to try harder, particularly, if pupils value the mark for effort. They are also said to be mark for encouragement
THE MOTIVE AND ITS COMPONENTS
A motive has two identifiable components – a Need and a Drive.
NEEDS: Are based on some deficiency within the person. The deficit may be physiological or psychological, but in either case the deficit must lie within the person. Physiological needs water, food, sleep, Psychological needs, are an approval, affection, power, prestige, and so on.
DRIVES: Though certainly based on needs, have the added feature of-an observable change in behavior. Drives imply motion of some sort. The person is not considered to be in a drive state until the need has pushed that person in to action.
Few teachers would deny that motivated students are easier to teach, or that students who are taking interest in learning do, in fact, learn more. So how do teachers motivate their students?
Here are some practice points tried-and true methods
1. Know your students’ good names and use their good names as often as possible.
2. Also, Prepare a Plan for every class; never try to wing it.
3. Pay attention to the power and limitations of each of your student. Reward their powers and strengthen their weaknesses.
4. If possible, make your room in a U-shape that’s seating plan is better to encourage interaction among students.
5. Change your instructional strategies; use lectures, talking, discussions, case studies, groups, and more.
6. Review the learning objectives with your students. Be sure students know what they are expecting to learn, do, know, etc.
7. Also, Make your classes relevant. Be sure students see how the content of the lesson relates to them and the world around them.
8. Move around the room as you teach.
9. Be expressive. Smile.
10. Put some interest into your speech; vary and change your pitch, volume and rate.
11. Give many interesting examples.
12. Encourage students to share their ideas and findings, even if they are wrong. You will never know what students do not understand unless you ask them.
13. Show eye contact and move towards your students as you contact with them. Move your head in negative to show that you are listening to them.
14. Also, Give chance to every student to speak to the class.
15. Be present before class starts, during break, and after class to visit with students.
16. Return all the assignments and tests to students as soon as possible. Provide constructive feedback.
17. Be consistent in your treatment of students.
18. Make sure that your marking of papers and result are current, valid, and reliable. Tie your assessment to your course objectives.
19. Plan around 15–20-minute cycles. Because the Students have problem maintaining attention after a longer period.
20. Involve your students in your teaching. Ask for feedback.